Camping highlights (I can suggest many more if needed):
For a less rustic experience (showers and water available): Temperance River State Park in Tofte. The pack-in sites are easy to access an offer better views/less people. Reservations required.
For more rustic but still quick access to your car: Poplar River Rustic Campground. This is on the Honeymoon Trail between the Sawbill and Caribou Trails in Lutsen. 4 well sized rustic campsites (no showers/water so bring your own) right on the Poplar River. First come, first serve.
For most rustic: Lake Agnes campsites on the Superior Hiking Trail in Lutsen. Public parking at Caribou Lake, cross the highway and take the SHT about 1.25 miles. There are two sites at the bottom of the lake where near where the trail first encounters it, and two more sites up at the top of the lake. No water/toilets. The views at the top of Lake Agnes are stunning and its a good beginner back-packing spot. Can continue on the trail from Agnes to Lutsen Mountains if feeling adventurous/in shape. SHT sites are first come first serve but I've never had a problem finding a site. Always good to have a back-up option though (such as the rustic campground listed above). *Carrying in water is heavy, water filtration systems suggested. Hatchets also suggested to get firewood.
Oberg Mountain: an easy, short loop hike with spectacular views. Especially during fall colors. *Please watch young children/pets on this trail, sheer cliffs with very flimsy wood fences as boundaries.
Carlton Peak: slightly harder than Oberg due to some fun boulders on the trail, decent views.
White Sky Rock: A spur trail off the SHT right where you start from Caribou Lake to Lake Agnes. Very short hike but VERY steep. Great vista of Caribou Lake. Awesome sunrise spot.
Pincushion Trail System: Cool views overlooking Grand Marais from above, multiple trail options.
Kadunce River: Hop in the river (with water shoes or old tennis shoes) and climb up 3 waterfalls as you hike up the river, then take the trail back down. *Best to do with a friend just to be safe.
Grand Portage Falls: There are three sets of falls as you go deeper into the trail
Cascade River: Trail goes a long ways up the river. Go off trail and lay on a flat rock in the middle of the river for a break! Lookout Mountain is at the top
Eagle Mountain: A personal fav. Most of this long hike (7.5 - 8mi) is flat and easy, but the last bit as you ascend the mountain to the highest point in MN is pretty steep. A fun winter hike too if you have poles.